Curtin, ‘Medical education and metropolitan planning inside the warm Africa’, AHR, 90, 3 (Summer 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Curtin, ‘Medical education and metropolitan planning inside the warm Africa’, AHR, 90, 3 (Summer 1985), 594-613; Raymond F

Grillot, ‘Dans ce Haut-Congo Fran9ais \ MC (19step one4), 140-step 1

96 AOM, AP648, Decree towards the production of a good Commune at the Brazzaville, 5 Oct 1911; speech out of Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, ten (1910), 331; AOM, 4(2)D7, Annual report of Moyen-Congo, Brazzaville, 1911. 97 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty six. 98 Mandat-Grancey, Au Congo, 182. 99 Veistroffer, Vingt arts, 103; Baratier, Au Congo, 121. 100 Colonel Moll, Une dme de colonial: lettres du Lieutenant-Colonel Moll (Paris, Emile-Paul, 1912), 10; Deschamps, De- Bordeaux au Tchad, 22-5; Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44-6; Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, step 32-step 3, step 3 8 ^ 0 . 101 To have urban structures in colonial Africa, find, Philip D. Betts, Uncertain dimensions: west overseas empires about twentieth century (Minneapolis: College or university off Minnesota Drive, 1985), 114-46; Odile Goerg, ‘Reflexion en ce qui concerne l’architecture europeenne ce long de- los angeles cote africaine a partir de l’exemple de los angeles Guinee’, into the Almeida-Topor and Riesz (eds.), Rencontres franco-allemandes sur VAfrique, 81-92; and Gwendolyn Wright, ‘Tradition from the service out-of modernity: buildings and you will urbanism in the French colonial rules, 1900-1930’, Diary of contemporary Records, 59 (June 1987), 291-316. 102 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 34. 103 Towards the record and need for the brand new Fourteenth regarding July inside Brazzaville, get a hold of Phyllis M. Martin, ‘National vacations transformed: new fourteenth of July inside the Brazzaville’, report demonstrated at 30-7th annual appointment of your African Degree Organization, Toronto, ps, ‘Rapport sur la area de Brazzaville’. 105 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, thirty six. 106 Message regarding Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 107 Gabrielle and you will Joseph Vassal, Franfais, Beige et Portugais en Afrique Equatoriale (Paris: Pierre Roger, 1926), 42. 108 Headrick, ‘The effect off colonialism into the health’, 221. 109 Curtin, ‘Medical education and you will more urban planning’, 594-7. 110 Ibid., 598-609; including Headrick, ‘The effect from colonialism into the health’, 1cuatro3-4, 801-2. 111 Bonchamps, ‘Rapport sur los angeles part de Brazzaville’. 112 Frey, ‘Brazzaville’, 44; Sautter, De- VAtlantique aufleuve Congo, vol. We, 398. 113 Challaye, Ce Congo Franfais, 219. 114 JO, ps, ‘Rapport en ce qui concerne los angeles region de- Brazzaville’; plus AOM, 4(2)D1, Brazzaville Manager in order to Commissioner-General when you look at the Libreville, 13 July 1901. 116 Quoted within the Headrick, ‘The perception out-of colonialism to the health’, 383. 117 JO, 20 Could possibly get 1905. 118 AGPSE, 510BVI, Annual records ‘Oeuvres de los angeles Sainte-Enfance’, twenty-four Oct 1901,step one January 1903,10 November 1912. 119 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 42. Chikouangue are a mention of the manioc money. 120 AOM, TP152, initially series, Objective Fillon, Report from M. Henri on Brazzaville workforce, 1913. 121 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9.

Fehderau, The foundation and development of Kituba (Lingua Franca Kikongo) (Kisangani: Universite Libre du Congo, 1966) means that Kituba is actually a language associated with the slave trade; William J

122 AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Purpose Record, 29 Will get 1908; Roentgen. P. C. 123 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-nine. 124 Pick, such, J.-P. Chretien and you can Grams. Prunier (eds.), Les ethnies ont une histoire (Paris: Karthala, 1989); Leroy Vail (ed.), The manufacture of tribalism inside the southern Africa (London: James Currey, 1989; Chris Grey, Adaptation and you may cultural label: the manufacture of national room from inside the outlying France and you can colonial area into the outlying Gabon (Bloomington: Indiana College Focus on Global Transform and you may Community Peace, 1994); Terence Ranger, The innovation away from lifestyle within the colonial Africa’, inside Hobsbawm and you may Ranger (eds.), New innovation of heritage, 211-62, he possess modified once the development of heritage revisited: the outcome away from colonial Africa’, in the Terence Ranger and Olufemi Vaughan (eds.), Authenticity together with state during the 20th 100 years Africa (London: Macmillan, 1993), 62-111. On the upgrade from their essay, Ranger might have been influenced, and others, by Benedict Anderson, Thought teams: reflections towards the root and pass on from nationalism (London: Verso, 1983). 125 Harold W. Samarin, Brand new roots out-of Kituba and you will Lingala’, Journal off African Dialects and you will Linguistics, several, 1 (Sep 1991), 47-77, implies that the diffusion try far more about international rail professionals in the all the way down Congo. 126 ASMF, Elizabeth l l . Brev fran Kongo, Lindgren to SMF, 18 October 1911; B and you can E. zero. step one, Korr., Lindgren to help you SMF, 11 November 1911; F. no. step 1, Dagbok, 22 February 1914; Brev fran Kongo, Grams. A beneficial. Hult to help you SMF, eleven January 1918. 127 Message away from Governor-Standard Merlin, BCAF, 10 (1910), 337. 128 Girard, ‘Brazzaville’, 38-9; AOM, 4(2)D13, Report regarding Pool section, Brazzaville, Will get 1913. 129 Mumbansa mwa Bawele, ‘Y a great-t-il des Bangalas?’ Zaire-Afrique, 78 (arin, ‘The sources of Kituba and you can Lingala’, 47, 57-69, and ‘Bondjo ethnicity and you can colonial imagination’, Canadian Diary away from African Degree, 18 (1984), 345-65. 130 ‘Brazzaville’, BPSE, twenty-five (1909-10), 511; AGPSE, B706, Brazzaville Mission Record, 31 Can get 1908,twenty-five September 1910,1 December 1913. 131 Pick chapters 3 and you may cuatro. 132 Grillot, ‘Dans le Haut-Congo Francais’, 139; ‘Brazzaville’, BCPSE, 27 (1913-14), 55; P. Augouard, Quarante-quatre annees au Congo (Evreux: Poussin, 1934), 50, 72-step three,105. 133 Girard,’Brazzaville’, 30, 31. 134 AOM, 4(2)D5, Management declaration, Moyen-Congo, September-November 1910. 135 Frederick Cooper, ‘Urban area, industrial go out, and you will salary labor from inside the Africa’, in the Challenge on area, 23. dos 1